Glossary

Successful collaboration begins with a shared language, hence the need for a glossary. This joint effort of contributors from several teams ensures, on the one hand, terminological and conceptual coherence across not only our theoretical approaches, but also the qualitative case studies and quantitative research conducted in OPPORTUNITIES. On the other hand, our glossary facilitates communication between the academic side of the project and the fieldwork conducted by NGOs, uniting our teams working from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ghana, Italy, Mauritania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania and Senegal.

For more information about the Structure and Objectives of the Glossary, click here...)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Highly skilled migrant

Highly skilled migrants are skilled workers who are permanent or long-term emigrants with a profession acquired through high-level education and/or experience. While skilled migrant workers often receive preferential treatment with regard to entry and residence in the host state (e.g. reduced requirements for change of occupation, family reunification, and length of stay), their act of migration is often detrimental to the economic and social development of the country of origin. By extension, the term also refers to student mobility or movement of the highly educated.

⇢ see also brain drain, migrant, mobility

References and further reading: Tandian, Aly, and Serigne Mansour Tall. 2010. “La migration des personnes hautement qualifiées depuis et vers le Sénégal: historicité, actualité et perspectives [Technical Report, Migration Policy Centre].” CARIM Analytic and Synthetic Notes 2010/22. URL: https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/13676. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

[AT]

Human trafficking

The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, published by the United Nations in 2000, defines human trafficking or “trafficking in persons” as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.” (Article 3, § (a)). For more details see also the entry on human trafficking in the Migration Data Portal.

⇢ see also trafficker

References and further reading:

Category: D

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

[MM]

Illegal entry

A migrant is in a situation of illegal entry into the territory of a country if he or she moves outside the legal conditions set by national regulations. Especially Senegalese media have used this term in recent years following the repatriation of irregular migrants to Spain. It is important to point out that ‘illegal’ does not mean ‘illegitimate.’ An act could be illegal under the law which, however, could be contested in courts or could have mitigating circumstances. For example, killing someone may be illegal under the law but self-defence could be presented as a legitimate reason. Similarly crossing the borders of a country without permission is illegal but a person may cross the border to seek asylum for the legitimate reasons of being persecuted in their country of origin.

⇢ see also asylum seeker, irregular migration, migrant, refugee

References and further reading: Tandian, Aly. 2020. “Profils de Sénégalais candidats à la migration : des obsessions aux désillusions.” Revue africaine des migrations internationales (June 2020): 2–22.

Category: A

Work Package: 3, 5, 6, 7

[AT / MM]

Inclusion

Inclusion is a societal approach that values and appreciates diversity by seeking to create “equal rights and opportunities” for every individual, independent of their national, cultural, ethnic, or religious background (ECRI 2021, n. p.). To achieve this aim, citizens, governments, and local authorities have to work together to create “conditions which enable the full and active participation of every member of society” (ECRI 2021, n. p.). An inclusive society is the prerequisite for successful integration of migrants in destination countries.

⇢ see also diversity, integration of migrants

References and further reading: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. 2021. “Integration and Inclusion.” URL: https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-commissionagainst-racism-and-intolerance/integration-and-inclusion. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

[CG]

Inequality

For a definition of the term, see the explanation provided by Social Europe. For further discussion of inequality in different settings (e.g. economic, social, gender), see the information provided by the OECD.

⇢ see also discrimination, gender

References and further reading:

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

[MM]

Integration

Without the use of any modifier, integration is a mode of migrant incorporation which requires migrants’ adherence to the legal and political framework of the host community and their identification with the common culture of citizenship. Ethnic and/or cultural differences are relegated to the private realm. It differs from assimilation in that migrants are not required to renounce their particular national, ethnic, religious or cultural identities and to conform to the culture of the majority community in order to belong. Given that both assimilation and integration focus on the individual, they do not facilitate the recognition of groups and the importance of diversity and cultural pluralism in society. Accordingly, integration policies, and the demands made by states for (better) integration of migrants, often fall short of treating migrants as full members of, and equal participants, in the community.

⇢ see also inclusion

References and further reading:

  • Castles, Stephen and Alastair Davidson. 2000. Citizenship and Migration: Globalisation and the Politics of Belonging. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
  • Kostakopoulou, Dora. 2010. “The Anatomy of Civic Integration.” Modern Law Review 7.36: 933–958
  • Kostakopoulou, Dora. 2002. “Integrating’ Non-EU Migrants in the European Union: Ambivalent Legacies and Mutating Paradigms.” Columbia Journal of European Law 8.2: 1–21.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

[DK]

Intercultural dialogue

The European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary defines intercultural dialogue as an exchange of worldviews and opinions of “individuals and groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds and heritage.” Based on the principles of openness, tolerance, and mutual respect, successful practices of intercultural dialogue can not only enhance a better understanding among nations, but also foster intercultural understanding.

⇢ see also agency, conviviality, fair dialogue, intercultural understanding

References and further reading: European Commission. 2020. European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/homeaffairs/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/glossary_en. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

[CG]

Intercultural understanding

Intercultural understanding is a philosophical concept grounded in hermeneutics. It refers to a person’s ability and willingness to acknowledge, appreciate, and overcome cultural differences in cross-cultural encounters. The prerequisite for intercultural understanding is an “‘intercultural mind” (Sommer 2013), i.e. a mindset which challenges racism, ethnocentric worldviews, and stereotypical representations. Based on the principles of empathy, perspective taking, and recognition, intercultural understanding advocates intercultural dialogue and multiperspectivity in contact zones, multicultural contexts, or other cross-cultural encounters.

⇢ see also empathy, intercultural dialogue, perspective taking, recognition

References and further reading:

Sommer, Roy. 2013. “Other Stories, Other Minds: The Intercultural Potential of Cognitive Approaches to Narrative.” In Stories and Minds: Cognitive Approaches to Literary Narrative, edited by Lars Bernaerts, Dirk De Geest, Luc Herman, and Bart Vervaeck, 155–174. Lincoln, NE and London: University of Nebraska Press.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

[CG / RS]

Intermedia agenda setting

For a definition of this term, please see the respective entry in the Glossary on Media, Society, and Culture provided by the Rebus Community.

⇢ see also frame analysis, gatekeeper

References and further reading: The Rebus Community. “Glossary on Media, Society and Culture.” Rebus Community. URL: https://press.rebus.community/mscy/back-matter/glossary/. Date of Access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 4, 5

[DC / LH / SM]

Irregular migration

According to the European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary the term irregular migration refers to the “movement of persons to a new place of residence or transit that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries.” It is important to note, however, that there is no common understanding of the term; rather, the meaning of “irregular” depends strongly on contextual factors such as the different perspectives of destination and sending countries. In a Senegalese context, for example, potential candidates for irregular migration are often impoverished members of the rural population who move to urban centers, where they first work in the informal sector and then try to escape to Europe (cf. Tandian and Tall 2010).

⇢ see also illegal entry, migration

References and further reading:

Category: D

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

[CG / RS]