Glossary

Successful collaboration begins with a shared language, hence the need for a glossary. This joint effort of contributors from several teams ensures, on the one hand, terminological and conceptual coherence across not only our theoretical approaches, but also the qualitative case studies and quantitative research conducted in OPPORTUNITIES. On the other hand, our glossary facilitates communication between the academic side of the project and the fieldwork conducted by NGOs, uniting our teams working from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ghana, Italy, Mauritania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania and Senegal.

For more information about the Structure and Objectives of the Glossary, click here...)

Standard definitions of technical terms routinely used in research.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Term Definition

Ability not to understand

The “ability to not understand” is an expression coined by Zali D. Gurevitch. The ability to not understand is opposed to the ability to understand or the inability to understand; in Gurevitch’s words: “real dialogue requires that the parties first acknowledge this otherness as the distance between them. Thus, the ability to not understand, rather than the ability to understand the other, is posited as crucial to the dialogic process.” (Gurevitch 1989, 161)

⇢ see also Cross Talk, fair dialogue, Level Telling Field

References and further reading:

Gurevitch, Zali D. 1989. “The Power of Not Understanding: The Meeting of Conflicting Identities.” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 25.2: 161–173.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

[BBK / CS / FK]

Assimilation

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term assimilation literally means “the act of making or becoming like,” “similarity,” or “conversion into a similar substance.” In sociology and migration literature, assimilation is related to the concept of integration, which refers to “the process whereby any minority group, especially a racial one, adapts itself to a majority society and is accorded by the latter equality of rights and treatment […]” (Bullock et al. 1986, 428). When the process of integration “reaches the point of obliterating the minority’s separate cultural identity,” the term assimilation of the minority into the majority is used (Bullock et al. 1986, 428).

⇢ see also inclusion, integration, migration, equality

References and further reading:

Bullock, Alan, Oliver Stallybrass, Stephen Trombley, and Bruce Eadie, eds. 1986. The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought. London: Fontana.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

[MM]

Asylum; Asylum seeker

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights contains the right to seek and to enjoy asylum from persecution. Persecution implies the infliction of serious harm on an individual and the failure of the state of his or her nationality to provide protection. Article 14(1) UDHR states that everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol define refugee as any person who, “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it” (Article 1.A(2)). Upon determination that a person falls within the ambit of the Refugee Convention, as amended by the Refugee Protocol, an asylum seeker gains the status of a refugee in the country in which he sought protection and thus protection from repatriation (the non-refoulement commitment).

⇢ see also forced migration and displacement, migrant, migration and identity, mobility, refugee

References and further reading:

United Nations General Assembly. 1948. “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” United Nations. URL: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of- human-rights. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR). 2010. “Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.” UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency. URL: https://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: D

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Attitudes, beliefs, and values

In the survey research conducted in the OPPORTUNITIES project, we measure attitudes on migration. Following a definition found on the website of the University of Reading, we define attitudes as a way of thinking or feeling with regards to someone or something. For example, people might have different attitudes about how welcome migrants are in a society. This may be influenced by a belief. A belief is, according to the same source, “an idea that is accepted as true without any facts.” Such beliefs may be the belief in equal chances for everyone, regardless of their origin. Another competing belief may be that societies are better off if they are ethnically homogeneous, even if this means that there are fewer candidates for certain jobs. These attitudes and beliefs are influenced by values. Values are more fundamental than beliefs and refer, according to the same website, to a people’s own set of principles which they consider of great importance. The (sometimes conflicting) ideologies of social democracy and nationalism might be considered as two examples of deeper value systems with different outcomes at the level of attitudes and beliefs.

⇢ see also quantitative media studies, survey analysis

References and further reading:

University of Reading. 2021. “Values, Beliefs and Attitudes.” University of Reading. URL: https://www.futurelearn.com/info/courses/supporting-learning-secondary/0/steps/58621. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 4, 5

[DC / LH / SM]

Brain circulation

For a definition of the term, see the respective entry in the European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary.

brain drain

References and further reading:

European Commission. 2020. European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/homeaffairs/what-we-do/networks/european_migration_network/glossary_en. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

[MM]

Brain drain

In the context of migration, the term brain drain must be distinguished from that of brain gain: “Brain drain is the loss suffered by a region [or country] as a result of the emigration of a (highly) qualified [or skilled] person, while brain gain is when a country benefits as a consequence of immigration of a highly qualified person.” (Srivastava 2020, n.p.) Brain drain is a loss to the country of origin. In the short to medium term (e.g. 1–5 years) brain drain reduces the human capital of a region or country, as it takes time and resources to train people unless emigrating people are replaced by immigrants with similar skills. In the long term (e.g. 5–10 years) brain drain could be managed by training and education of those who have not migrated, and again by immigration.

⇢ see also brain circulation

References and further reading: Srivastava, Shubhaangi. 2020. “Brain Drain vs. Brain Gain.” Assembly of European Regions. URL: https://aer.eu/brain-drain/. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

[MM]

Capabilities

OPPORTUNITIES stresses the capabilities of persons, their freedom to do and to be, and thus the kind of life they seek and are effectively able to lead. How do refugees and migrants see their well-being in their (new) country? How do they perceive living together and building a common life? What reasons do they adduce for this? How do they argue their life in their new/old situation? In Cross Talks, participants discuss their desired kind of life, discern their capabilities, the resources they need, the degrees of freedom they can choose, the need to work together. This communication is indispensable: it opens the opportunity to create a common world.

⇢ see also opportunity

References and further reading:

Sen, Amartya.1987. On Ethics and Economics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Category: A, B

Work Package: 3, 6, 7

[MD]

Circular migration

The term circular migration refers to the journeys that migrants make between their countries of origin and another country. Circular migration was a long-standing practice for many Senegalese before it was put on the international agenda as a way of managing international migration in a concerted manner and as a means of reconciling migration and development. In the framework of circular migration, during 2007, Spain concluded bilateral agreements with Senegal, giving 4,000 Senegalese the opportunity to work in Spain temporarily in the agricultural sector. To this effect, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero stated that “the agreements signed with Senegal allow immigration to take place within a legal framework under the guidance of the Spanish Ministry of Labour and according to the state of the labour market in Spain” (qtd. in Tandian and Tall, 2011, 10; author’s translation).

⇢ see also migrant, migration, migration culture

References and further reading:

  • Tandian, Aly. 2012. “Migrations internationales des Sénégalaises : nouveaux profils des migrantes et insertion professionnelle en Espagne.” In Les migrations africaines vers l’Europe : Entre mutations et adaptation des acteurs sénégalais, edited by Papa Demba Fall et Jordi Garreta Bochaca, 209–240. Lleida: REMIGRAFIFAN/GR-ASE. URL: http://www.papadembafall.com/publications/Fall%20et%20Garreta%20ESPAGNE.pdf. Date of access: August 24, 2021.
  • Tandian, Aly. 2017. “Enjeux de la migration circulaire : des limites des accords entre le Sénégal et l’Espagne aux frustrations des candidates à la migration.” Revue Sénégalaise de Sociologie 12–13: 65–86.
  • Tandian, Aly, and Serigne Mansour Tall. 2011 “Migration circulaire des Sénégalais : Des migrations tacites aux recrutements organisés [Technical Report, Migration Policy Centre].” CARIM Analytic and Synthetic Notes 2011/52. URL: https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/18478. Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

[AT]

Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of equal membership of a political community from which enforceable rights and obligations, benefits and resources, participatory practices, and a sense of identity flow. The liberal conception of citizenship stresses the formal legal status of being a citizen whereas the civic republican and communitarian conceptions of citizenship emphasize the communal context within which individuals are embedded and exercise self-determination. Citizenship’s roots can be traced back to the ancient Greek city states. The Romans extended the grant of citizenship to the conquered peoples of the Roman Empire thereby making law and order, and not ethnicity, its founding principles. The development of modern statehood made citizenship synonymous with nationality – a link which was called into question in the 1980s owing to globalization and the increasing mobility of people as well as the maturation of European integration and the transformation of the European Community into a post-national political unit.

⇢ see also European integration, mobility, naturalization

References and further reading:

Kostakopoulou, Dora. 2008. The Future Governance of Citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Category: A, D

Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8

[DK]

Civil society

The term civil society refers to a set of nongovernmental and non-commercial stakeholders shaping public spaces for collective action based on shared values and interests; it consequently stands for collective agency that is generally distinct from government and commercial for-profit actors.

⇢ see also agency, stakeholder

Category: A Work Package: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8

[BBK / CS / FK]